The Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan is a comprehensive 10-year plan aimed at reducing waste generation and improving overall waste management in the Bangladeshi capital city of Dhaka. Like many fast-developing cities in the region, Dhaka is facing growth challenges (Greater Dhaka’s population is expected to rise from 14.5 million in 2005 to 17 million by 2015). The City has a limited capacity to collect and treat waste, and in 2005 less than half (44%) of the waste produced in Dhaka was collected. This is partly due to a lack of awareness among local populations, who rely mainly on informal waste collectors (tokai), and partly because the Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) in charge of collection lacked the means and skills to set up an effective collection mechanism and a waste treatment policy that could recover materials through recycling.
The ISWMP aims to manage municipal solid waste throughout its life-cycle, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and encourage public and private sector participation. It is based on the improvement of three key operational items: Waste Reduction, Waste Collection and Waste Disposal, with a strong emphasis on raising public awareness and a significant upgrade of the existing collection assets and landfills. The connection between the Dhaka population and local authorities was a necessary condition for the success of the ISWMP. Indeed, the Clean Dhaka Master Plan is based on a ward-by-ward approach and strongly mobilizes local communities. The ‘Clean Dhaka Award Competition’ exemplifies the communication strategies undertaken by both North and South administrations to mobilize citizen support. In addition, the tokai have been included in the new waste collection system: they will be in charge of collecting small containers dedicated to household recycling and will participate in awareness campaigns.
Dhaka authorities hope to collect and treat at least 68% of the waste produced in the inner metropolitan area, which would mean an accumulated 180% increase in collection and final disposal efficiency in comparison to 2005’s 44% collection rate. The plan intends to reduce CO2e emissions mostly through the re-engineering and improvement of waste disposal sites. The re-engineering of the existing site of Matuail and the controlled landfill in Amin Bazar are projected to reduce emissions by an average of 99,000 tons of CO2e per year. The opening of a composting facility in Dhaka is also projected to reduce an average 177,000 tons of CO2e emissions per year.