Jakarta - Socially Inclusive Climate Adaptation for Urban Revitalisation Project

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Challenges

Lying in the delta of 13 rivers with 40% of its landmass below sea level, Jakarta and its 10 million residents are extremely vulnerable to climate risks, especially extreme or sudden changes in rainfall pattern and sea level rise. Destructive floods in 2002, 2007, 2013 and 2014 have caused economic losses of $1.5 billion.

The Government of Jakarta faced a number of other challenges such as:

  • Scarcity of land, and thus difficulties in providing land with adequate and integrated facilities;
  • Financial constraints in subsidising low-cost housing. Alternative financial resources outside of the city budget or new financial schemes are needed to achieve the target;
  • The project is broader than just a mere relocation scheme, since the scheme also fosters economic empowerment through job creation for the relocated residents;
  • Some people have an aversion to being relocated (70%), due to the distance between the new housing and their working place and they asked compensation without guarantee for moving.

Actions

These residents are to be rehoused (relocation) following a humanized and participatory process. To help with this rehousing, the Government of Jakarta has been building subsidized low-income high-rise apartment blocks in the city. The relocation with “a humanized and participatory process” means the relocation without harassments for empowering and improving their quality of living, and involving all stakeholders in the relocation process such a bottom up process where “dialogue” is an important tool.

The Governor and the Mayor with his officials diligently meeting with the people (community leaders) from the projected area, at least twice a week within 3 months even with dinner together on the site of slums. They communicate (dialog) console and negotiate with a firm proposition. Persuading them with the purpose and the objective of the relocation.  First, almost 70% of the people resistant to the relocation action, they asked money as compensation for their land and their illegal home, however by the law the government cannot pay the compensation since the land own by the Government and they will move to another slum area. It’s not a sustain solving problem. Finally, majority of public, NGOs and media (97%) supported the Governor, and the people has been relocating with an intensive dialogue. Beside Media and some NGOs also did many campaigns and persuasions.

For those who holds Jakarta valid ID are eligible (around 80% from 400,000 people) to get a unit in the newly built low cost apartments (This stage, for 520 families, two 16 floor towers apartment have been erected at the site close from the evacuated land.) Each family is given free unit’s rent for 6 months, after that they are responsible to pay a service charge of 300,000 rupiahs per month, which can be paid daily (10,000 rupiahs a day, which is less than a dollar a day.) Each family is given a free furniture such matrass and TV and also public facilities around the apartment.  Every bread winner in a family can use his/her ID as a free school, free ticket for a free ride on a Trans Jakarta Bus to go to work and school. Beside smart card for books and others and health card for Clinique, hospital and medicine from the Government.

The apartment buildings were built using Jakarta Government’s budget (80%).  Private sectors participated in donating CSR money to provide furniture’s and facilities for the apartment’s building, e.g. television set, refrigerator, oven and eating utensils to increase their quality of living.  In our National Regulation, the private sectors should contribute 5% from their benefit to CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility).

The next stage, in building the new apartments and some infrastructure and facilities, the budget will be supported by contribution of the private sector with “cross subsidy financial scheme”. As compensation from the right to reclaimed of the coastal waterfront area, private sector has the obligation to contribute around 20% to the program of urban revitalization, especially for the poor existing area that has been committed in the Development Agreement. The land of reclamation area still owns by the Government and also the planning and the development control still by the government

 

Other climate change targets include:

 

  • CO2 reduction: by increasing green spaces by around 11,100 hectares, Jakarta aims to reduce CO2 emissions by around 653 tonnes of CO2e, increasing as more green spaces and city forests are built;
  • Climate change risk and vulnerability reduction: targets include the reduction in duration, depth and coverage of an inundated area (from 24 hours to 1 hour), in the number of residents vulnerable to floods and displacement (down by 13%);
  • Water quality improvement: most water used by vulnerable residents is contaminated by e-coli bacteria, due to the closeness to latrines and unsanitary waste management. Relocation is expected to reduce sedimentation caused by solid waste  (90-200 tonnes per day)
  • The improvement of the quality of living. They have subsidized apartment, free school, free bus ticket, and get smart card and health card, and the more chance to have a job  with the involvement of stakeholders,  such NGO and private sectors to give them training and capacity building.  

Projected Outcomes

  • Environmental benefits: the project is implemented in accordance with the spatial plan of Jakarta for 2030, which mandates a 30% increase in green open space of 30%, a 5% increase in blue open space, and affordable housing with good sanitation;  a number of people are positively and directly impacted from this project - that is around 3000 people (520 families), and for the previous stage (14,200 families), and by the end of the program (2017/2018), it will be 400,000  vulnerable people (50,000 families) who are living in squatters at the 290,860 meters’ river banks area and covers 3,422,500 m2 reservoirs in Jakarta. More than a half the population of Jakarta (6,7 million) who are prone to the flood risk will be also be positively indirectly impacted; they will no longer be a victim of annual flooding due to the increase in the water capacity and land absorbing of the river and reservoir as well as water retention
  • Economic benefits: the community’s economic empowerment is expected to reduce poverty, create jobs, and increase economic activity through investment in the urban economy; they have get more possibility to have a job opportunity with the involvement of the NGO and private sectors to give them training and capacity building.  The government also provide job opportunities with open such the traditional market, a night market, field for hydroponic, location for temporally vendors or small traders and a household industry near by
  • Social benefits: relocation to public rental housing, supported by economic empowerment schemes, is expected to increase welfare, by reducing unemployment and social insecurity
  • Health benefits: the project will contribute to better health outcomes by providing better sanitation, more green spaces and reduced exposure to disease outbreaks such as malaria and typhus.
  • Estimation of the project’s financial benefits has been calculated around are USD 3.0 billion including benefits from a cleaner river, cleaner area free from slums and illegal houses, availability of parks and city forests, green and blue spaces and jogging tracks, including due to lower level damage from floods, with reducing damage to the city infrastructures and utilities, inability to conduct daily activities, traffic jam, disease outbreak, diminishing number of tourist, loss of people (excluding measurement the benefit of increasing the quality of life of the people)
  • Their quality of living is getting better. Now, the area, say it Kampung Pulo has been cleaned and potential, sheet pile to revitalize the river streams and avoid landslides were built along the river banks. City Forrest, jogging tracks and river inspection road are being constructed. The slums area has turned into a nice and clean area, the Ciliwung river is becoming cleaner, streamed better and has a much bigger capacity for water retention to avoid flooding

The success model has been used as a model and a benchmarking for the other relocation projects in Greater Jakarta. There are some other locations of illegal squatters along riverbanks in Greater Jakarta (there are 13 river system in Greater Jakarta) awaiting for relocation. The model also has been used as reference in other cities in Indonesia as well as other cities in the world that have a same condition with Jakarta especially Delta Cities. Some cities have been learning from Jakarta with the coordination of C40 Connecting Delta Cities Network

The project is part of the Spatial Plan 2030, the Jakarta Water Management Strategy 2030 and the Climate Adaptation Road Map for 2030. Jakarta's 2030 vision is to have a safe, convenient and sustainable city, and the project will contribute to the targets of each plan, such as improving integrated water management, integrating blue and green infrastructure development, contributing to low cost housing programmes (50,000 units) and supporting CO2 emissions reduction. The project is one of the Governor’s 7 priorities up to 2017.