Lying in the delta of 13 rivers with 40% of its landmass below sea level, Jakarta and its 10 million residents are extremely vulnerable to climate risks, especially extreme or sudden changes in rainfall pattern and sea level rise. Destructive floods in 2002, 2007, 2013 and 2014 have caused economic losses of $1.5 billion.
The Government of Jakarta faced a number of other challenges such as:
These residents are to be rehoused (relocation) following a humanized and participatory process. To help with this rehousing, the Government of Jakarta has been building subsidized low-income high-rise apartment blocks in the city. The relocation with “a humanized and participatory process” means the relocation without harassments for empowering and improving their quality of living, and involving all stakeholders in the relocation process such a bottom up process where “dialogue” is an important tool.
The Governor and the Mayor with his officials diligently meeting with the people (community leaders) from the projected area, at least twice a week within 3 months even with dinner together on the site of slums. They communicate (dialog) console and negotiate with a firm proposition. Persuading them with the purpose and the objective of the relocation. First, almost 70% of the people resistant to the relocation action, they asked money as compensation for their land and their illegal home, however by the law the government cannot pay the compensation since the land own by the Government and they will move to another slum area. It’s not a sustain solving problem. Finally, majority of public, NGOs and media (97%) supported the Governor, and the people has been relocating with an intensive dialogue. Beside Media and some NGOs also did many campaigns and persuasions.
For those who holds Jakarta valid ID are eligible (around 80% from 400,000 people) to get a unit in the newly built low cost apartments (This stage, for 520 families, two 16 floor towers apartment have been erected at the site close from the evacuated land.) Each family is given free unit’s rent for 6 months, after that they are responsible to pay a service charge of 300,000 rupiahs per month, which can be paid daily (10,000 rupiahs a day, which is less than a dollar a day.) Each family is given a free furniture such matrass and TV and also public facilities around the apartment. Every bread winner in a family can use his/her ID as a free school, free ticket for a free ride on a Trans Jakarta Bus to go to work and school. Beside smart card for books and others and health card for Clinique, hospital and medicine from the Government.
The apartment buildings were built using Jakarta Government’s budget (80%). Private sectors participated in donating CSR money to provide furniture’s and facilities for the apartment’s building, e.g. television set, refrigerator, oven and eating utensils to increase their quality of living. In our National Regulation, the private sectors should contribute 5% from their benefit to CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility).
The next stage, in building the new apartments and some infrastructure and facilities, the budget will be supported by contribution of the private sector with “cross subsidy financial scheme”. As compensation from the right to reclaimed of the coastal waterfront area, private sector has the obligation to contribute around 20% to the program of urban revitalization, especially for the poor existing area that has been committed in the Development Agreement. The land of reclamation area still owns by the Government and also the planning and the development control still by the government
Other climate change targets include:
The success model has been used as a model and a benchmarking for the other relocation projects in Greater Jakarta. There are some other locations of illegal squatters along riverbanks in Greater Jakarta (there are 13 river system in Greater Jakarta) awaiting for relocation. The model also has been used as reference in other cities in Indonesia as well as other cities in the world that have a same condition with Jakarta especially Delta Cities. Some cities have been learning from Jakarta with the coordination of C40 Connecting Delta Cities Network
The project is part of the Spatial Plan 2030, the Jakarta Water Management Strategy 2030 and the Climate Adaptation Road Map for 2030. Jakarta's 2030 vision is to have a safe, convenient and sustainable city, and the project will contribute to the targets of each plan, such as improving integrated water management, integrating blue and green infrastructure development, contributing to low cost housing programmes (50,000 units) and supporting CO2 emissions reduction. The project is one of the Governor’s 7 priorities up to 2017.