Through the Spatial Plan 2030xxiii, Jakarta Water Management Strategy 2030xxiv and Climate Adaptation Road Map for 2030xxv, Jakarta aims to promote a safe and sustainable city. A key element is prevention or reduction of annual floods, which are caused by sea-level rise, storm surges and land subsidence, but also by insufficient flow and infiltration capacity of Jakarta’s watercourses (due to illegal waste disposal clogging and insufficient blue-green networks). This is why Jakarta launched the Socially Inclusive Climate Adaptation for Urban Revitalization Project (USD1.3 billion to be invested over 2012-2017) that aims to relocate close to 400,000 illegal squatters from riverbanks and nearby reservoirs, within "a humanised and participative process". Jakarta already succeeded in implementing most of its pilot project around the Pluit Reservoir in North of Jakarta.
As part of the pilot project, the Government of Jakarta has already built 14,201 new apartment units towards the target of 52,656 units by 2017 and relocated around 50,000 people to government subsidised high-rise, low-cost housing, while not only providing them with basic amenities (electricity, water), but also taking into account their job security through an economic empowerment scheme. This allowed Jakarta to expand and deepen the Pluit Reservoir to increase its water storage capacity and develop surrounding green spaces to improve water infiltration. The project also delivers multiple co-benefits, including improved livelihood and sanitary conditions for relocated citizens, carbon sequestration and urban pollution reduction. Finally, reduced flood frequency and duration coupled with fewer people living in flood-prone areas helps prevent disease outbreaks, such as malaria and typhus.
Reasons for success
Jakarta’s success in addressing residents’ initial opposition to the project stemmed from the community multi-stakeholder approach, with leadership from the Governor, officials, private sector and community heads, as well as intensive communication and public information campaigns. These had to address the issue of residents not being accustomed to living in rented vertical housing and reluctance to relocate without compensation, fuelled by lack of knowledge about new housing’s benefits. Another reason for success was the private- public scheme, in which private companies holding property development permits in the affected area were obliged to participate in the project under a cross-subsidy scheme.
When/why a city might apply an approach like this
A city that faces competing interests for land use and other issues causing land encroachment, such as informal settlement, where buffer areas for flood protection are needed, could adopt an approach such as the one Jakarta took. All delta cities however, should assess their coastal and riverside land-use and determine if the uses are sustainable and resilient to changing climate conditions.
C40 Good Practice Guides
C40's Good Practice Guides offer mayors and urban policymakers roadmaps for tackling climate change, reducing climate risk and encouraging sustainable urban development. With 100 case studies taken from cities of every size, geography and stage of development around the world, the Good Practice Guides provide tangible examples of climate solutions that other cities can learn from.
All references can be found in the full guide.