Jakarta - Socially-Inclusive Coastal Protection


Jakarta lies in the delta of 13 rivers with 40% of its land below sea level, which makes it very vulnerable to flooding. According to the city’s current projections, 80% of North Jakarta will be 5m below the average sea level in 2030. In response, in the short term, Jakarta has introduced the Pluit Reservoir revitalization project, which aims to restore and improve the coastal reservoir’s performance as one of the vital drainage retention basins. Covering a catchment area of 2,083 hectares in North Jakarta, the reservoir is currently a vulnerable and underperforming piece of infrastructure during flooding. In the longer term, the National Capital Integrated Coastal Development (NCICD) project includes the construction of a sea defense wall, land reclamation and port development, which will help Jakarta anticipate the threat of flooding resulting from rising sea levels while also creating opportunities for a world class water-front city.


In order to respond to the imminent threats that climate change poses for Jakarta, the city has introduced key actions, including:

  • Increasing canal and river capacity with a water body to land ratio target of 5% for the city; dredging of rivers; restoring reservoirs
  • Improving the city’s drainage system and building dikes to anticipate sea level rise
  • Promoting public awareness of the impacts of climate change
  • Relocating informal settlements to safer areas that are not at risk of flooding
  • Enforce the local Ground Water Use Restrictions regulation to prevent contamination of seawater and further subsidence of ground water level
  • Planting vegetation to store and absorb water in residential areas and provide a water reserve for the community; restoring the mangrove forest

Actions involving stakeholders include:

  • Engaging local community leaders in discussions with Jakarta’s Governor
  • Securing NGOs to support people during the resettlement process
  • Asking private sector companies to support the projects by donating goods and services.

Projected Outcomes

Through the ongoing short and the long term projects, Jakarta hopes to reduce annual urban flooding and to limit the impacts that this flooding will have on its citizens. As such, the projects will enhance the city’s resilience to the risks posed by climate change.

The project has relocated around 3,000 squatters from the reservoir, and improved water capacity by around 6,720,000m3 through a 2,080 hectare catchment area.Development of a 20 hectare park andCity Forest of around 10,000 trees has provided a recreation area as well as contributing to mitigation for absorbing CO2. The Pluit Reservoir project is a pilot for other reservoirs and rivers.

Water ecosystems (such as lakes, estuaries and mangrove forests) that have been damaged or lost will be restored. Furthermore, the projects will improve the lives of the individuals they relocate, by moving those to new subsidized apartments where they are less vulnerable to flood risk and related health problems.