2–3% of global CO2 emissions come from international shipping1
80% of global trade is delivered by ships2

About this sector

Shipping is powered almost entirely by fossil fuels, with the industry accounting for 2–3% of global CO2 emissions; this figure could rise to 17% by 20501 if left unregulated. 

Emissions from shipping also contribute to approximately 60,000 deaths annually due to air pollution exposure. This results in $160 billion of health-associated costs yearly3, with health effects experienced most acutely among coastal communities.

C40 mayors have an important role in international trade, being home to some of the world’s busiest ports and connecting major economies. Through C40’s ports and shipping work, city leaders and their ports can accelerate the deployment of zero-emission solutions for global supply chains.

Cities have the power to progress ambitious commitments, create collaborative emissions reduction programmes, and support research, innovation and implementation.

Visit the C40 Knowledge Hub for more information about this area of work:

1. Maritime Data Solutions. (2022). What Are Five Environmental Impacts Related To Shipping?; International Energy Agency. (2022). International Shipping.
2. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. (2022). Review of Maritime Transport 2022.
3. Anenberg, S., Miller, J., Henze, D. A. V. E. N., & Minjares, R. (2019). A global snapshot of the air pollution-related health impacts of transportation sector emissions in 2010 and 2015. International Council on Clean Transportation: Washington, DC, USA.

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